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The Age of the Spectacle

Is this the real world or is it fantasy?

Glowing billboards. ‘Reality’ television. Instagram influencers. Golden yellow arches crowding large city centers. Fake bodies, fake personalities, fake plastic trees.

Flooded with information, memes and seductive advertisements.

McDonalds – I Am Lovin’ it.  Nike- Just Do It. Coca-Cola – Taste the Difference. Apple – Think Different.

Manufactured desires. Manufactured appearances.

Passive spectators. Passive consumers.

Welcome to the age of the spectacle. A world of carefully crafted images and illusions. Fiction becomes reality and the ‘real world’ becomes undesirable.

crop anonymous woman tying belt on wrist

Even prior to the advent of the internet and social media, French theorist Guy Debord recognized modern societies obsession with appearances and images. In his seminal book The Society of the SpectacleDebord critiques consumerism and the advent of mass media and marketing which came to dominate our day to day lives beginning in the latter half of the 20st century.

He tracks the evolution of social relations from being into having and subsequently from having into appearing.

  1. Being into Having: This transformation represents a shift in human relations where the focus is not one’s character or temperament (ie. who one is), but rather what they own. Their social status and stuff that they have.  
  2. Having into Appearing: A second shift occurs in modern societies when prestige and recognition becomes dominated by the world of images and appearance. That is, the representation of a thing or event take’s precedence over one’s own direct experience in the moment. Images and appearances are now of paramount importance. The German philosopher Ludwig Feuerbach summarizes this concept nicely,

…the present age… prefers the sign to the thing signified, the copy to the original, representation to reality, appearance to essence… truth is considered profane, and only illusion is sacred.

Ludwig Feuerbach, The Essence of Christianity

Amongst the numerous examples of this phenomenon, the most obvious of course is the addictive social media apps we all know and love. Every minute of our lives comes to be meticulously recorded, carefully crafted, edited and posted online.

Satisfaction in one’s life does not come from our direct experience with the world, but rather from the likes, comments and shares we get from our pictures and videos. Think of those who go to concerts only to watch the whole show though the screen on their smartphones.  

A copy of a copy – Image Source

The spectacle is not a collection of images; rather, it is a social relationship between people that is mediated by images.

Guy Debord, The Society of the Spectacle

The spectacle shapes and influences our desires, goals and aspirations. It tells us who we are and who we ought to become. If only I could look like the athlete from the latest edition of Sports Illustrated with his toned body, big smile and perfect lifestyle. We think to ourselves, “perhaps if I purchase a BMW I will become as attractive, sleek and confident as that man in the commercials.”

Further, the spectacle affects how we think of personal, romantic and professional relationships. We desire for our dating experience to be as dreamy as those couples from The Bachelor or our marriages to exemplify our favourite romantic film.

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Happiness can be bought, one purchase at a time. Image Source

Ultimately, all these endless spectacles and advertisements we see on a daily basis distort reality, and hinder our ability to think critically about issues. We become alienated from ourselves and to others as everything becomes a commodity. It becomes increasingly difficult to live in the world authentically when corporations and their marketing departments shape our interests, beliefs and consumption habits.

The spectacle permeates not just through seductive marketing campaigns, but also has become the norm in our ‘news’ media and politics. Entertainment, viewership and attention becomes more important than genuine policy discussions or analysis.

Recall in the movie Gladiator, how the Emperor Commodus used the gladiator games to distract the public of the various crises across the Roman Empire. This strategy of entertainment and diversion has not changed much from the past, we just have more sophisticated means of distracting the population.

The spectacle prevails.

Are you not entertained?

The political theater that we’ve all become exhausted from isn’t necessarily a new phenomenon per say, but it is just far more apparent with our current crop of politicians. Further, it becomes amplified with the range of digital technologies now available to everyone.

Humanities fascination with the world of images, illusions and representations has been well documented throughout history by philosophers, most notably in Plato’s famous allegory of the cave. Just like the prisoners fixated on the shadows, we ourselves have become detached from the ‘real world’ ,and our direct observable experiences with our endless digital distractions.

As technology advances, will we continue to become mere spectators in this world of images or can we cultivate the wisdom and self-awareness to break free from our chains?

To pull the plug and leave The Matrix , turn away from the spectacle and embrace the ordinary.

To love and cherish the one world we have.  

Plato’s cave in the 21st century, Image Source

When the real world is transformed into mere images, mere images become real beings – dynamic figments that provide the direct motivations for hypnotic behavior.

Guy Debord, The Society of the Spectacle

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Coca-Cola – Saving the world one healthy beverage at a time. Photo by Artem Beliaikin on

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This article was originally posted on my personal blog: A Life of Virtue: Philosophy as a Way of Life – In Search of Inner Freedom

13 thoughts on “The Age of the Spectacle

  1. Thank you, Andrew, for sharing this very rich post. You made such great points. I agree: “Satisfaction in one’s life does not come from our direct experience with the world, but rather from the likes, comments and shares we get from our pictures and videos.”
    In “I Am That,” Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj stated: “To be a person is to be asleep.”
    The majority of humans are serving their ego, without being aware that an “idea” of who they are is distracting them from recognizing a deeper dimension of Self. 🙏

  2. Andrew—what you have written is profound and it drew me into and through the post to the end: to me, a rarity in the world of blog posts. One fleeting insight came to me from this sentence: “Fiction becomes reality and the ‘real world’ becomes undesirable.” It suggests at a basic level how the progressive importance of possessing things (and the corresponding change in image) is much like using an addictive drug to make the real world disappear, and much like a drug’s effects are transitory, so are the effects of changing one’s image, of increasing one’s possessions, of increasing one’s status—it’s all transitory—and when the effects wear off, we’re driven on in search of a greater high…

  3. Nice read.
    The desire to be recognized based on outside appearance is easy for humans. Creating Character depth takes time and discipline which are rare qualities.
    The big companies promoting consumerism win, the society suffers

  4. You make such a great point in that this isn’t a new phenomenon. I sometimes become frustrated with all of the things you‘ve mentioned, but fail to realize it’s an age-old issue. Same story, take 2022. Thank you for this fantastic post, Andrew!

  5. In the 90s we used to say that one doesn’t exist if they don’t go on TV. Nowadays it has become worse. Yesterday I saw a report showing a car where you can prepare a coffee. Why would I need to prepare a coffee in my car? Marketing creates needs that aren’t real, that none would really need. Though it is fascinating and our ego remains trapped. Excellent post Andrew!

    1. It feels like we have become more and more detached from the earth, in digital realities. A desire for cheap pleasure has distracted us from the responsibility we have to the earth

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